Course lecturer: Dr. Annelou Ypeij
In the last twenty years gender relations in Latin America have been greatly transformed within the context of globalization processes and reforms. Restructured labour markets, social mobility and increasing migration flows have meant new challenges and opportunities in the daily lives of women and men. These social transformations may offer new opportunities but may also confront people with new challenges. They have led to a repositioning of women and men towards each other, renegotiating their relationships. Conceptions of femininity and masculinity are constantly being reconstructed and are acquiring new meanings. These transformations also mean a great challenge for scholars who wish to analyse these changing gender relations. Not only does the social reality they study constantly change, also theoretical insights and approaches on how to analyse and interpret them do so.
Questions will be raised as:
How dominant is machismo for the identity of males?
Are single mothers always worse off than married mothers?
Are women more Indian than men?
What does the homosexual stigma mean for the construction of masculinity?
How do violence and gender intersect?
Students will meet 7 times in class. The meetings will have the character of seminars. In the first meeting the teacher will give an introduction to the course and divide the students in groups of three. Then the students take over. Each student group will be responsible for one of the seminars that are organized around the course themes. During the last meeting(s) the students present their papers. This course requires a very active participation of students. During the meetings the students will give presentations, chair the meetings and discuss the course themes. In between the meetings the students will work on their paper and prepare the seminar they are responsible for.
Assessment & Literature (under provision)
The final grade will be based on the participation in the seminars (50%) and the paper (50%). The subject of the paper has to be closely related to one of the themes of the course. The paper will be based on literature study and has to be handed in the last week of the course. The course has a reading list with articles which will be presented and discussed during the seminars. The following preliminary reading list will determine two weeks before the start of the course.
1) Masculinities and Machismo
Brandes, Stanley (2006)  “Drink, Abstinence, and Male Identity in Mexico City,” in: Matthew Gutmann Changing Men and Masculinities in Latin America, Durham & London: Duke University Press, pp. 154-176 (22 p.).
Gutmann, Matthew C. (1997) “The Ethnographic (G)ambit: Women and the Negotiation of Masculinity in Mexico City,” American Ethnologist, 24(4): 833-855 (22 p.).
Navarro, Marysa (2002) ‘Against Marianismo’ in: Rosario Montoya, Lessie Jo Frazier, Janize Hurtig Gender’s Place. Feminist Anthropologies of Latin America, New York & Hamshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.: 257-273 (16 p.).
Stevens, Evelyn P. (1973) ‘Marianismo: The other Face of Machismo in Latin America’ in: Pescatello, Ann (1973) (ed.) Female and Male in Latin America, Essays, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, pp: 89-101 (13 p.).
Wentzell, Emily (2011) “Generational differences in Mexican Men’s ideas of Age Appropriate Sex and Viagra Use” Men and Masculinities, 14(4): 392-407 (15. p).
2) Familiy Relations, Matrifocality, Single Motherhood
Chant, Sylvia (2006) ‘Female Household Headship, Privation and Power, Challenging the ‘Feminization of Poverty’ Thesis’, in: Patricia Fernandez-Kelly & John Sheffner Out of the Shadows. Political Action and the Informal Economy in Latin America, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, pp. 125 – 163 (40 p.)
Fonseca, Claudia (2003) Patterns of Shard Parenthood among the Brazilian Poor, Social Text 42 (1): 111-127 (16 p.).
Wekker, Gloria (2001) ‘Of Mimic Men and Unruly Women. Social Relations in Twentieth Century Suriname’, in: Rosemarijn Hoefte & Peter Meel (eds.) Suriname in the Twentieth Century, Leiden/ Kingston, Jamaica: KITLV Press & Ian Randle Publishers, pp.: 174-197 (24 p.).
3) Race and Ethnicity
Canessa, Andrew (2005) ‘The Indian Within, the Indian Without: Citizenship, Race and Sex in a Bolivian Hamlet’, in: Andrew Canessa (ed.) Natives making Nation. Gender, Indigeneity, and the State in the Andes, Tuscon: University of Arizona Press, pp.: 130-155 (24 p.).
Crain, Mary M. The Gendering of Ethnicity in the Ecuadorian Andes; Native Women’s Self-Fashioning in the Urban Marketplace in: Melhuus, Marit and Kristi Anne Stølen (eds.) Machos, Mistresses, Madonnas : Contesting the Power of Latin American Gender Imagery, London, New York: Verso: 134-158 (24 p).
De la Cadena, Marisol (1995) ‘’Women Are More Indian’: Ethnicity and Gender in a Community near Cuzo’, in: Brook Larson & Olivia Harrris (eds.) Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the Andes. At the Crossroads of History and Anthropology, Durham & London: Duke University, pp.: 329-348 (19 p.).
Harris, Olivia (1978) ‘Complementarity and Conflict: an Andean View of women and Men’ in: J.S. de La Fontaine (eds.) Sex and Age as Principles of Social Differentiation London: Academic Press, pp.: 21-40 (19 p.).
Kulick, Don (1998) Hoofdstuk 2 ‘Becoming a travesty’ in: Travestí: Sex, Gender, and Culture among Brazilian Transgendered Prostitutes, Chicago: University of Chicago Press: pp. 44-95 (52 p.).
Lancaster, Roger (1999) ‘That we should all turn queer?’ Homosexual stigma in the making of manhood and the breaking of a revolution in Nicaragua’, in Richard Parker & Peter Aggleton (eds.) Culture, Society and Sexuality: a reader, Londen: UCL Press, pp. 97-115 (19 p.).
Montoya, Rosario Women’s Sexuality, Knowledge, and Agency in rural Nicaragua in: Rosario Montoya, Lessie Jo Frazier, Janize Hurtig Gender’s Place. Feminist Anthropologies of Latin America, New York & Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp: 65-88 (23 p.)
Nencel, Lorraine (1996) ‘Pacharacas, Putas and Chicas de su casa: Labelling, Femininity and Men’s Sexual Selves in Lima Peru’ in: Melhuus, Marit and Kristi Anne Stølen (eds.) Machos, Mistresses, Madonnas : Contesting the Power of Latin American Gender Imagery, Londeo, New York: Verso: pp. 56-82 (27 p.).
Prieur, Annick Domination and Desire; Male Homosexuality and the Construction of Masculinity in Mexico in: Melhuus, Marit and Kristi Anne Stølen (eds.) Machos, Mistresses, Madonnas : Contesting the Power of Latin American Gender Imagery, London, New York: Verso: pp. 83-107 (24 p.).
Wekker, Gloria (2006) What's Identity got to do with It? Rethinking Identity in light of The Mati Work Suriname . In: Ellen Lewin (ed.) Feminist Anthropology. A Reader New York: University Press: pp. 435-448 (13 p.).
Boesten, Jelke (2010) Analysis in rape regimes at the interface of war and peace in Peru, International Journal of Transitional Justice, 4:110-129 (19 p.).
Bourgois, Philippe, (1996) In Search of Masculinity - Violence, Respect and Sexuality among Puerto Rican Crack Dealers in East Harlem, British Journal of Criminology: 412-427 (16 p.).
Cházaro, Angélica, Jannifer Casay, and Katherine Ruhl (2010) Getting Away with murder: Guatemala’s Failure to Protect Women and Rody Alvarado’s Quest for Safety, in: Rosa-Linda Fregoso and Cynthia Bejarano (eds.) Theorizing women. Feminicide in the Américas, Durnham & London: Duke University Press, pp.: 93-115 (22 p.)
Olivera, Mercedes (2010), Violencia Feminicide: Violence against Women and Mexico’s Structural Crisis, in: Rosa-Linda Fregoso and Cynthia Bejarano (eds.) Theorizing women. Feminicide in the Américas, Durnham & London: Duke University Press, pp. 49-58 (8 p.).
Registration and Participation
MA students that are registered at another Dutch university can register through our digital registration form.
If you have any questions, feel free to contact the CEDLA secretariat. We are open on weekdays from 9.00 to 17.00 hours.
Pictures: Geraint Rowland (CC BY-NC 2.0); Amanda Oliveira (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)