The 'Cuadernos del CEDLA' series is meant to present research in progress and aims at the quick distribution of research results connected to the CEDLA research programme. In this way, it provides a forum for distributing and discussing ongoing research. They are available for download in accordance with our Open Access policy. As a service to our readers, the Cuadernos are also available in a subsidized print edition. Students in the Netherlands receive a 50% discount. Back issues in PDF format and are also available from our Cuaderos Open Access Archive.

The 'Cuadernos del CEDLA' Working Paper Series presents research in progress and quickly distributes research results connected to the CEDLA research programme. They are available for download in accordance with our Open Access policy. CEDLA applies the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY 4.0) to all Working Papers.


Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 30, Working Papers

The Political Influence of the Latin American Military30cuad
Dirk Kruijt

CEDLA, October 2017, 37 pp.


Latin America has been and maybe still is the continent of political soldiers and military politicians. In this essay Dirk Kruijt follows the military’s professional evolution, its involvement in society and politics, and the dual engagement in external and internal security. Since colonial times the Latin American armies were and are in charge of confronting external threats and internal enemies. The paradoxical duality of military professionalism and political ‘calling’ is a recurrent theme during the last 65 years. He makes a distinction of political armies of the Right and the Left. In both cases a kind of ‘military mystique’ prevails, but its content is different. In both cases the military justify their involvement in politics as a ‘calling’ based on their vanguard role in politics and society. The two characteristics of dual tasks (internal and internal security) and dual pathways (military professionalism and political involvement) are a revolving theme in this paper. The substance of this contribution is divided in four sections (1) the basic characteristics; (2) political armies of the Right and the Left; (3) the military in democratic Latin America; and (4) new security agendas and ‘unconventional’ counterinsurgency. In the conclusions Dirk Kruijt reflects on these striking particularities of the Latin American military ethos.



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 29, het 50-jarig jubileum uitgave van CEDLA 1964-2014

Latijns Amerika in beeld
Visies op een bewogen regioJubileum

Marc Simon Thomas (red.)
CEDLA, januari 2015, 224 pag.
ISBN 978-90-70280-30-7 ; speciale 50-jarig jubileum prijs van € 10 incl verzending binnen NL.
Bestelling en vragen:

Films en documentaires geven vandaag de dag bij uitstek een beeld van de complexe werkelijkheid van Latijns Amerika. Latijns Amerikaanse speelfilms en documentaires bereiken zowel in de regio als wereldwijd een groeiend publiek en zij hebben in de afgelopen twee decennia diverse internationale prijzen in de wacht gesleept. Tegelijkertijd worden YouTube filmpjes een steeds belangrijkere bron om de veranderingen in de regio te begrijpen. Zij verschaffen verschillende sectoren van de Latijns Amerikaanse samenleving de gelegenheid om zichzelf en hun kijk op hun omgeving te presenteren. Allerlei groepen die voorheen nauwelijks toegang hadden tot de productie van films en video’s gebruiken nu het internet om hun visie op Latijns Amerika zichtbaar te maken.

Voor het 50-jarig jubileum van CEDLA is een aantal onderzoekers gevraagd om, elk vanuit de eigen discipline en expertise, Latijns Amerika te duiden aan de hand van oude en nieuwe vormen van film. Het resultaat is dit boek met 21 essays waarin bijna alle landen van Latijns Amerika aan bod komen. Films, documentaires en YouTube filmpjes over Latijns Amerika en/of gemaakt door Latijns Amerikanen vormen de basis van deze bundel. Samen verschaffen zij zowel een uniek overzicht van Latijns Amerikaans beeldmateriaal, als een boeiende inkijk in deze snel veranderende regio. De bundel is verdeeld in vier overkoepelende thema’s: het militaire, dictatoriale verleden en de herinneringen daaraan, het optimisme van de Nieuwe Tijd, de criminele en gewelddadige schaduwzijde van Latijns Amerika en tenslotte het milieu en de strijd om natuurlijke hulpbronnen. Met de visuele productie over de regio als uitgangspunt schetst deze speciale uitgave een beeld van de soms rauwe en conflictieve, maar vooral veelzijdige, dynamische en intrigerende realiteit van Latijns Amerika.

Aan deze uitgave werkten mee: Michiel Baud, Fábio de Castro, Leontien Cremers, Pitou van Dijck, Saskia van Drunen, Carmen Giménez, Marie-Louise Glebbeek, Imke Harbers, Barbara Hogenboom, Rivke Jaffe, Christien Klaufus, Judith Kolen, Emiel Martens, Arij Ouweneel, Wil Pansters, Elisabet Rasch, Ruby Sanders, Patricio Silva, Marc Simon Thomas (red.), Karolien van Teijlingen, Mijke de Waardt, Julienne Weegels en Annelou Ypeij.



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 28

What is the Future for Amazonia?
Socio-Economic and Environmental Transformation and the Role of Road Infrastructure
What Is the Future for Amazonia?
Pitou van Dijck (ed.)

CEDLA, May 2014, 132 pp.
ISBN 978-90-70280-29-1 ; € 15 including postage. Orders and inquiries:

Amazonia is going through a large-scale and probably irreversible transformation process. The size of territories in use for small-scale and large-scale mining, cattle raising, agricultural production and timber logging is expanding rapidly. These activities are supported by a rapidly increasing network of roads and an expanding system of (hydro) energy supply. Flows of migrants are looking for new employment opportunities and income to start a new life in settlements and service centres throughout the region. Hence, amidst the largest forest on earth a new resource-based economy is being developed. As a consequence of these interrelated developments, large-scale land use change and deforestation are taking place. In view of improved accessibility of the area and growing world demand for (processed) natural resources, the anthropogenic pressure is expected to increase further in the years to come.

This Cuaderno del CEDLA focuses on these recent socio-economic developments in Amazonia, in particular on: the diversity among municipalities, provinces and regions in socio-economic levels of development and speed of transformation; spatial and environmental modelling of potential impacts of such developments on future land use and deforestation; and the potential contributions of strategic environmental assessments (SEAs) of (road) infrastructure.

The contributors are Bert van Barneveld, tropical agriculturalist and agro-ecologist, former Regional Manager of DHV, La Paz, Bolivia; Ruud Buitelaar, economist at ILPES/ECLAC, Santiago de Chile; Martin van der Beek, economist at Object Vision, Amsterdam; Pitou van Dijck, economist at CEDLA, Amsterdam; Sergio González Catalán, agronomist at ILPES/ECLAC, Santiago de Chile; Ronnie Lassche, earth scientist at Object Vision, Amsterdam; Mathilde Molendijk, GIS specialist at VU University Amsterdam; Luis Riffo Pérez, economist at ILPES/ECLAC; Rob Vos, economist at the FAO, Rome; Marinella Wallis, International Policy Studies, formerly of CEDLA.



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 27

The Extraction and Conservation of Natural Resources in South America
Recent Trends and Challenges
The Extraction and Conservation of Natural Resources in South America

Fábio De Castro, Pitou van Dijck, Barbara Hogenboom

CEDLA, May 2014, 100 pp.
ISBN 978-90-70280-28-4 ; € 15 including postage. Orders and inquiries:

This Cuaderno del CEDLA focuses on recent developments and challenges related to the extraction of natural resources and their conservation in South America, with a strong focus on Amazonia. Amazonia as a region is well-endowed with a diverse stock of natural resources such as water, hydrocarbons, minerals, soils and forests. The area is attracting investments from all over the world in support of the exploitation of these resources and their export to global markets. Clearly, these developments are having a profound impact on the socio-economic structure as well as on the environmental condition of the region. Rapidly increasing population density and economic activities such as mining, agriculture and cattle raising are expanding and exerting increasing anthropogenic pressure on these ecosystems, resulting in major changes in its social and territorial configuration. As a consequence, deforestation and environmental degradation have taken place throughout the region at widely fluctuating rates over the longer term. Transport and energy infrastructure being developed at a rapid pace and on a large scale to support this transition process is taking place in what still is the largest and richest wilderness on the planet. Hence, there is an urgent need to make environmental impact assessments of these activities and to formulate and effectively implement new policies in support of environmental conservation, social justice and poverty alleviation for local communities.

Barbara Hogenboom, Pitou van Dijck, and Fábio de Castro have combined their diverse disciplinary approaches in this study to emphasize the economic, social, environmental and political challenges facing the region. Their chapters include outcomes of their own recent research that are in part related to ENGOV, an EU-sponsored project focusing on environmental governance in Latin America and the Caribbean, and to a WWF-sponsored research project.

Fábio de Castro is Assistant Professor of Brazilian Studies, Pitou van Dijck is Associate Professor of Economics, and Barbara Hogenboom is Associate Professor of Political Science, all at CEDLA, Amsterdam.



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 26

Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Amazon
The Cases of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Suriname
Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Amazon

Leontien Cremers, Judith Kolen, Marjo de Theije (eds)

CEDLA, June 2013, 116 pp.
ISBN 978-90-70280-18-5 ; € 15 including postage. Orders and inquiries:

Small-scale gold mining increasingly causes environmental problems and socio-political conflicts in the Amazon. Uncontrolled use of mercury and deforestation threaten the livelihoods of the inhabitants of the forest, and the health of the miners and their families. Tensions arise when miners work in territories without licenses and governments have no control over the activities and the revenues generated. The scale of the problems has increased in the past few years due to the high price of gold and the introduction of more mechanized mining techniques. At the same time, the activity offers a livelihood opportunity to many hundreds of thousands of people.

In this book the Contributors give a situation analysis of small-scale gold mining in five countries in the wider Amazon region. This work comes from a base line study that is part of the GOMIAM project (Small-scale gold mining and social conflict in the Amazon: Comparing states, environments, local populations and miners in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Suriname). GOMIAM develops a comparative understanding of socio-political and environmental conflicts related to small-scale gold mining in the Amazon. The chapters describe the different social, political and environmental situations in each country, including technical, economic, legal, historical, and policy aspects of the small-scale gold mining sector.

The contributors are Helcias Ayala, Mourik Bueno de Mesquita, Felix Carrillo, Mary Chávez Quijada, Leontien Cremers, Gerardo Damonte, Celine Duijves, José De Echave Cáceres, Adhemir Flores, Beatriz Helena Giraldo, Marieke Heemskerk, Judith Kolen, Leyla Marcela Martinez, Armin Mathis, Víctor Hugo Pachas, Ton Salman, Mariana Sarmiento, Carola Soruco, Ana Cristina Soto, Marjo de Theije, Alexandra Uran. All are involved in the GOMIAM project as researchers. They have different disciplinary backgrounds, which is reflected in the broad scope of the ethnographic, economic, technical and political data collected in this book.



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 25

Andeans and Their Use of Cultural Resources
Space, Gender, Rights & Identity
Andeans and Their Use of Cultural Resources
Arij Ouweneel (ed.)

CEDLA, October 2012, 140 pp.
ISBN 978-90-70280-10-9 ; € 15 including postage. Orders and inquiries:

Cultural resource use has become a major theme defining the role of Latin America in an emerging global society. Such resources may be found "out there," in the world, ready to use. In this cuaderno, CEDLA researchers CHRISTIEN KLAUFUS, ARIJ OUWENEEL, MARC SIMON THOMAS, ANNELOU YPEIJ and MIJKE DE WAARDT regard "cultural resources" as any set of cultural elements within a specific sociocultural setting and conducive to the quest for enhanced self-esteem, status improvement, economic advancement, or a liberated identity. Cultural elements that are converted into resources furthering progress for some people may simultaneously turn out to inhibit progress for others. Cultural resources can therefore not be studied as "separate entities" with an intrinsic value, as they may be valued only as "resources" or as "limitations" within the particular context of study. As material and non-material artifacts, cultural resources reflect historical and contemporary patterns of behavior, practices, traditions, beliefs, and thought. The different ways of drawing behavior models and designing patterns of social life from the well of local customs, national traditions, and the emerging global practices are at the core of the chapters.



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 24

Legal pluralism and interlegality in Ecuador
The La Cocha murder case
Legal pluralism and interlegality in Ecuador
Marc Simon Thomas

CEDLA, November 2009, 110 pp.
ISBN 90 70280 07 9 - € 10 including postage. Orders and inquiries:

With its Constitution of 1998, Ecuador legally acknowledged its pluri-cultural and multi-ethnic character. As a feature, it recognized customary law along with state law, through which a situation of formal legal pluralism came into being. Despite several attempts to develop a coordinating law and jurisprudence, no so-called conflict rules have yet been developed. Consequently, it is still unclear how to deal with conflicts over jurisdiction. That is why a homicide in La Cocha could be adjudicated by indigenous authorities in the first place, but a couple of months later the verdict overruled by the national legal system. A judge recognized the indigenous administration, but subsequently the Court of Justice referred the case back to a national criminal court.

The La Cocha murder case illustrates what may happen to the process of interlegality – that is, the interaction between two different normative orders – in a situation of formal legal pluralism when conflict rules are lacking, providing a supplement to existing elaborations on interlegality.

With an epilogue by Professor André Hoekema.



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 23

Policía, seguridad y transición política
Acercamientos al estado del México contemporáneo
José Carlos G. Aguiar y María Eugenia Suárez, eds.

CEDLA, JULIO 2008, 101 pp.
ISBN 90 70280 49 3, rústica € 10 including postage. Orders and inquiries:

El disparo de los índices delictivos en las ciudades y el surgimiento de industrias criminales transnacionales, en particular el narcotráfico, van a la mano del proceso de democratización de las instituciones políticas en México a partir de la década de 1980. La seguridad se ha convertido en el tema angular del debate social, y está al centro de las preocupaciones ciudadanas; en respuesta, los gobiernos democráticos formulan políticas para la reducción de la criminalidad y violencia. La seguridad en México es un indicador del funcionamiento del estado de derecho, de las instituciones públicas y también un revelador de los miedos públicos y confianza de los ciudadanos en su gobierno.
Mientras el sistema político del país transita de un partido de Estado a un modelo multipartidista, es primordial estudiar las respuestas de estos gobiernos sobre la cuestión de la seguridad. ¿Cuál ha sido el impacto de la transición política sobre la reducción del crimen y la agenda de seguridad en México? ¿Cómo funcionan y son utilizadas las instituciones policiales y judiciales en este contexto?

JOSÉ CARLOS G. AGUIAR es investigador del CEDLA y profesor titular en el centro de Lenguas y Culturas de América Latina, Universidad Leiden.
MARÍA EUGENIA SUÁREZ, es profesora titular del Centro de Estudios de Género, Universidad de Guadalajara.
Quienes también contribuyeron a esta publicación son: Wil Pansters, Marcos Pablo Moloeznik y Arturo Villarreal Palos.



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 22

Maize and Biosecurity in Mexico: Debate and Practice pdf
Edit Antal, Lauren Baker and Gerard Verschoor

CEDLA, September 2007, 96 pp.
ISBN 90 70280 89 2. € 10 including postage.
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Mexico committed to liberalizing its trade under the terms set by NAFTA and the WTO, yet it is also obliged to protect its exceptional biodiversity. This is especially delicate as it is closely linked to cultural diversity and the survival of poor campesino and indigenous groups.
The unfortunate introduction of GMOS into the country occurred through imported maize, a product that appears to be the apple of discord in the discussion on biotechnology. For Mexicans, non-economic factors make the origin and quality of maize extremely important, even more so than costs and prices. If Mexico is unable to find new strategies of survival that are also environmentally sustainable for the countryside, the guardians of the genetic diversity of maize - the still numerous rural subsistence farmers - will end up as undocumented immigrants in the USA.
This study discusses the possibility to have one sole food policy that responds to the interests of the sectors linked to technological knowledge as well as those linked to traditional knowledge. In the complex Mexican context, it is possible to promote efficiently the adoption of biotechnology and at the same time preserve bio-divesity, and who should pay the costs?



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 21

Construcción Problemática: IIRSA y las Asociaciones Público-Privadas en
la Infraestructura Vial
Pitou van Dijck y Simon den Haak

CEDLA, October 2006, 96 pp.
ISBN 90 70280 99 x. € 10 including postage.
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Este estudio analiza la contribución potencial de asociaciones público-privadas (apps) en la innovadora y ambiciosa Iniciativa para la Integración de la Infraestructura Regional Sudamericana, iirsa. Como un amplio plan regional, iirsa es única en su tamaño y concepto como apoyo a una integración económica más profunda y la inserción de la región en los mercados mundiales. El Impacto potencial de iirsa en la geografia económica regional puede ser significativo a través de su estímulo para la inversión, producción y comercio. Al mismo tiempo, la infraestructura vial puede amenazar ecosistemas y los bienes públicos que éstos proveen para la comunidad local y global.

Entre las características distintivas de iirsa está su ambición de hacer que mecanismos financieros innovadores tales como las apps contribuyan a su implementación y financiamiento. Hasta aquí, la experiencia es limitada. Hay lecciones que aprender de grandes proyectos app en Brasil, como el Programa Vial en Mato Grosso y el programa para pavimentar la vía br-163 Cuiabá-Santarém. Como se muestra, una app es no es ciertamente una misión sin problemas y los riesgos financieros, regulatorios y ambientales pueden ser substanciales. Sin embargo, con los riesgos financieros distribuidos más adecuadamente, el uso de análisis costo-beneficio más realistas, evaluaciones ambientales completas y procedimientos de implementación relacionados, apps pueden producir recompensas substanciales para la sociedad en general.



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 20

Troublesome Construction: IIRSA and Public-Private Partnerships in Road Infrastructure pdf
Pitou van Dijck and Simon den Haak

CEDLA, October 2006, 96 pp.
ISBN 90 70280 90-6. € 10 including postage.
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This study analyses the potential contribution of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the innovative and ambitious Initiative for Regional Infrastructure Integration in South America, IIRSA. As a region-wide plan, IIRSA is unique in its size and concept in support of the deepening of economic integration and the insertion of the region in world markets. The potential impact of IIRSA on the region's economic geography may be significant through its stimulus to investment, production and trade. At the same time, road infrastructure may threaten ecosystems and the public goods they provide for the local and world community.

Among the distinctive features of IIRSA is its ambition to make innovative financial mechanisms such as PPPs contribute to its implementation and financing. So far, experience is limited. Lessons are to be learned from sizeable PPP projects in Brazil, such as the Programa Estradeiro in Mato Grosso and the programme for paving the BR-163 Cuiabá-Santarém highway. As shown, a PPP is certainly not a trouble-free mission, and financial, regulatory and environmental risks may be substantial. Nevertheless, with financial risks distributed more adequately, the use of more realistic cost-benefit analyses and comprehensive environmental assessments and related implementation procedures, PPPs may produce substantial rewards for society at large.

Pitou van Dijck is Associate Professor of Economics at C edla, Amsterdam. Simon den Haak has received a masters degree with distinction of Cedla, and works as a policy officer at the Dutch Lower House of Parliament.



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 19

The Price of Peace, The Human Rights Movement in Postwar El Salvador pdf
Ralph Sprenkels

CEDLA, december 2005, 120 pp.
ISBN 90 70280 29 9 Pb. € 10 including postage.
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In 1993, the official report of the Truth Commission confirmed the extent of human rights violations during El Salvador’s civil war (1980-92). The military and state officials proved to have been complicit in large-scale and premeditated atrocities. On a notably lesser scale, FMLN insurgents were also responsible for human rights abuses.

Days after the Truth Commission’s report was published, a sweeping amnesty law effectively buried expectations for justice. So strong and vocal before and during the war, the human rights movement was unable to reverse this process, partly due to its historical ties with the FMLN. This became problematic in the postwar context, as the prosecution of crimes might also have legal implications for the FMLN leadership. In the end, the human rights movement was paralysed through an implicit pact of impunity between the government and the FMLN.

This study, by documenting the shift in political identities on a grassroots level as a result of a difficult, painful and disempowering transition process, contrasts with most contemporary scholars on social movements, which tend to be optimistic about the transformational potential of the social movement.

Ralph Sprenkels received a masters degree with distinction of Cedla, and works as a Democra-tization Policy Officer at the Interchurch Organization for Development Cooperation (ICCO).



Cuadernos del CEDLA, No. 18

Colombia from the Inside, Perspectives on Drugs, War and Peace pdf
Michiel Baud & Donny Meertens, editors

CEDLA, November 2004, 122 pp.
ISBN 90 70280 69-8. € 10 including postage.
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Colombia is Latin America's linchpin. Located between Central and South America, it is a crucial geopolitical region. Unfortunately, today its strategic hemispheric position has turned from an asset into a serious liability. Civil war and an increasing narcotics industry have led to a fragmented political system, an uncontrollable economy and a vulnerable international position. The volume, with contributions from seven eminent Colombian scholars, centres on this complex and often contradictory society, which has been dogged by violence, international controversy and uncontrolled military strife for decades. The text is largely based on a seminar on the Colombian Conflict in International Perspective, held at the third Congreso Europeo de Latinoamericanistas (CEISAL), in Amsterdam, and a meeting organized at the Nether-lands' Ministry of Foreign Affairs in The Hague, in 2002. During these events, Colombian scholars gave their views on the complex situation of their country. The principal aim of their analysis was to present a vision from within and share their views on the current dynamics of conflict – particularly in the context of North American anti-terrorist and anti-drugs measures – with international academics and policy makers.

The contributors are: Alvaro Camacho (University of the Andes, Bogota), Francisco Leal (University of the Andes, Bogota), Alfredo Molano (political analyst and writer), Alfredo Rangel (Foundation for Security and Democracy, Bogota), Mauricio Romero (Rosario University, Bogota), Gonzalo Sanchez (National University of Colombia, Bogota) and Ricardo Vargas (Transnational Institute and Andean Action Platform).


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